Ultrasound Diagnosis in Gynaecology
By N. D. Selesneva, USSR
Excerpted from "Ultrasound as a Diagnostic and Surgical tool" - based on the International Symposium held at the Royal College of Surgeons, London on 5th and 6th December, 1962. This is a summary of the papaer.
The diagnosis of tumours of the female internal genitals is sometimes difficult. At the present time some new methods of medical investigation have most useful application. They are endoscopic methods of examination (laparoscopy and culdoscopy), X-Ray of the organs of the lesser pelvis with pneumoperitoneum, and echography with an ultrasound appears- these methods are of great help for correct diagnosis.
We used in our work a UZD-4 ultrasound apparatus, constructed at the USSR scientific research institute of medical instruments and equipment.
In the surgery department of the Research Institute of obstetrics and gynaecology of the Ministry of Health of the RSFSR some patients undergoing treatment for tumour of internal genital were examined by ultrasound. The ultrasonic examination was employed when it was hard for various reasons to diagnose the case.
Ultrasound was used when it was necessary to find the consistence of the tumour (whether it was compact or fluid). The tumour consistence is often the decisive factor for correct diagnosis. Sometimes ultrasound was used to ascertain whether the tumour existed at all. There are no contra-indications for the use of this method.
The examination showed that in the case of a compact tumour, when ultrasonic energy is rapidly consumed we see on the screen the section of the anterior abdominal wall and the part of tumour adjoining that wall; after that the signal quickly fades.
In the case of a fluid tumour ultrasonic energy passing through the anterior abdominal wall and through the first wall of the tumour and partly reflecting from them will freely spread in the fluid of the tumour and reflect from its back wall. In this way the outline of the cyst becomes visible on the echogram. And in the case of a two-chamber cyst, the partition of the cyst cavity is seen on the echogram. If the contents of the tumour are half fluid, we must increase the power of the generator to see the back wall of the tumour. Thus comparing the data given by the apparatus with those of the clinical examination we can confirm the diagnosis of endometriosis cyst, pyosalpinx, uterine myoma degeneration.
The examination of the patients with the help of the ultrasonic apparatus is simple in technique and does not take much time. This method gives doctors valuable data, helping to diagnose the case. Further development of this method depends mainly on this improvement of the equipment.
Excerpted from "Ultrasound as a Diagnostic and Surgical tool" - based on the International Symposium held at the Royal Collrgr of Surgeons, London on 5th and 6th December, 1962. Paper presented in absentia as a summary read by the Chairman.
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