Karl Theo (Theodore) Dussik was born in Vienna, Austria on 9th January, 1908. His father, also a Dr. Karl Dussik, was an immigrant from Czechoslovakia and practised dentistry in central Vienna. Dussik graduated from the Bundesreal-gymnasium in Vienna (formerly the Franz-Joseph high school) in 1926 and from the University of Vienna Medical school in 1931. Soon after graduation, and from 1932 to 1938, he was psychiatrist and neurologist at the University of Vienna, working under Professor Erwin Stransky and Professor Otto Pötzl, successor to the Nobel laureate in Physiology and Medicine (1927), Julius Wagner-Jauregg. In an article in 1936 discussing his pioneer work in applied psychopathology, Stransky described Dussik, who was assisting him at the time, as a "very studious and talented" young physician.

The University of Vienna Medical School was at that time one of the largest and best in Europe, with an excellent reputation for ingenuity and academy. Apart from being the home to a number of Nobel laureates, there were important scientists and physicians of world-wide reknown in the faculty. These included surgeons Anton von Eiselsberg and Adolf Lorenz, and psychiatrists Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler. In the mid 1930s Dussik had collaborated important work in the treatment of Schizophrenic patients with "Insulin-shock therapy" pioneer Manfred Sakel. Dussik travelled to New York in 1937 to lecture on the subject and visited their psychiatric institutions.

Dussik's research at that time also encompassed the use of hypoxia in diagnosis and treatment, and the use of near complete transfusion of cerebral spinal fluid in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the brain. Prompted by the difficulty often encountered in making diagnosis of brain tumors and other pathologies, Dussik, in around the year 1937 started to look into the use of ultrasonics in medical diagnosis, having learned that ultrasonic waves had been employed successfully in detecting schools of fishes and boats at sea. At this time radar technology was developing and the concept of metal flaw detection was just coming into existence (O Muhlhauser, 1933, Sokolov, 1935 and Pohlman, 1936). Commercial metal-flaw detectors have not yet been in the market. Ultrasound was just starting to be tested as a therapeutic tool in medicine, in European countries such as Germany and France and in the United States. Dussik was exploring the possibility of visualizing intracranial structures and making ventricular measurements with ultrasound waves, basing on 2-dimensional representation of intensity attenuation of the ultrasound waves through human tissues and fluids. He soon became the first physician to apply ultrasound as a diagnostic method in human subjects, a procedure which he later called "Hyperphonography".

At the beginning of the second world war, when Austria was annexed by Germany in 1938 ^, Dussik was displaced from the University and made in-charge of the Neurology section of the Allgemeine Poliklinik (General Polyclinic) in Vienna until 1941. In the 3 years at the General clinic Dussik had continued to look into the use of ultrasonic waves as a diagnostic tool. In 1942, Dussik was drafted into the German Air force (the Luftwaffe) as medical officer. In the following year (1943), the military hospital of the German Air Force catering to the treatment of airmen with head and spinal cord injuries was relocated from frontline Berlin in Germany to Bad Ischl, a resort town at the Salzkammergut, near Salzburg. Dussik was made in-charge of the neurology wards at the hospital, converted from an existing hotel (the Hotel Haus Bauer), and worked under Professors Hans Meyer (in neurology) and Wilhelm Tönnis, the celebrated pioneer in modern German neurosurgery.

Before Dussik was transferred to Bad Ischl, he had presented his idea of using ultrasound as a diagnostic device in a paper he wrote in 1941, entitled: "Uber die moglichkeit hochfrequente mechanische schwingungen als diagnostisches hilfsmittel zu verwerten (On the possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid) ". In the paper, Dussik presented the theoretical considerations in ultrasound generation, transmission and effects, and the possibility of differentiating different body tissues by ultrasound transmission through these tissues. He also presented the quartz ultrasound generator (with transmitter and receiver) he used which was fabricated with help from engineers F Seidl and C Reisinger at the Physics Institute of the University of Vienna. He also described some of his initial experiments and referenced the work of earlier pioneers such as Sokolov, Bergmann, Dognon, Pohlmann, Freundlich, Gohr, Wedekind, Hayashi, Hopewood, Namikawa, Wood and Loomis.

After the war came to an end in 1945, Dussik continued to work at the millitary hospital in Bad Ischl, which was then under American occupation. Together with his younger brother Friedrich they finally managed to construct a rather elaborate prototype apparatus to make images of the human brain and ventricles (see below) and published their first ultrasound images in 1947. They called the procedure "hyperphonography". Friedrich Dussik, 2 years his junior, was a radio and mathematical physicist with a PhD from the University of Vienna (in 1938, thesis: 'A determination of the disintegration constant of Thorium from the number of the emitted alpha particles'). For a period of time he had also worked at Telefunken in Berlin in the development department for the new technology of " television". They were also assisted by physicist L Wyt, who had mainly been involved with work on the insonation effects and therapeutic use of ultrasound on human tissues.

T1 -- ultrasonic generator, Q1-- transmitter, Q2 -- receiver, T2 -- converter amplifier, W -- waterbath,
L -- light, P -- photographic/ heat-sensitive paper *

They used a through-transmission technique with two transducers placed on either side of the head, and producing what they called "ventriculograms", or echo images of the ventricles of the brain. Pulses of 1/10th scond were produced at 1.2 MHz. Coupling was obtained by immersing the upper part of the patient's head and both transducers in a water bath and the variations in the amount of ultrasonic power passing between the transducers was recorded photographically on heat-sensitive paper as light spots (not on a cathode-ray screen). It was an earliest attempt at the concept of 'scanning' a human organ. Although their apparatus appeared elaborate with the transducers mounted on poles and railings (see below), the images produced were very rudimentary 2-dimensional rows of mosaic light intensity points. There was a similarity with the technique employed in television.

The Dussiks' conception of image formation was different from the concepts of ultrasound scans we have today. They tried to create a two-dimensional representation of the shape of the fluid-filled ventricles via mapping of the interior surfaces of the brain:

"Rather than registering the outline of a tumor as a shadow, indicating the presence of opaque tissue, the hyperphonogram purported to reveal distortions of the interior surface of a fluid-filled space. Such structural changes were to be deduced from deviations from normal values of the transverse dimensions of that space. This dimension was measured by registering the smaller absorption of energy when the ultrasound passed through the ventricular fluid rather than simply through brain tissue. The energy absorption was detected by the shading of heat-sensitive paper. The darker the patch, the less the attenuation and thus the bigger the ventricle at that point. Shade stood for transverse cross section, and the shaded patches were added together by the eye to form a shape roughly similar to the longitudinal section of the ventricle. Looking at the hyperphonogram one could "see" the ventricle in three dimensions, even though the dark patches in the image had extension only in two. That at least was the theory." (Yoxen, 1987) ^^

The figure on the left is one of Dussik's transmission "Ventriculograms", where the image was thought to correspond to the shape of the lateral ventricles. The dark patch in the center depicted the fluid-filled ventricles with relatively well-demarcated borders. At the First Congress of Ultrasound in Medicine held in Erlangen, Germany in May 1948, Dussik presented his paper on Hyperphonography. There were only two papers at the meeting which discussed ultrasound used as a diagnostic rather than a therapeutic tool. The other paper was from German physician and physiologist Wolf-Dieter Keidel at the Physikalisch-Medizinischen Laboratorium of the University of Erlangen, who tried to look at the possibility of using ultrasound in making cardiac and thoracic measurements. Having discussed with researchers at Siemens, Keidel also conducted his experiments using the transmission technique with ultrasound at 60 KHz, and rejected the pulse-reflection method. In his experiments, he was only able to make satisfactory recordings of intensity variations in relation to cardiac pulsations and he envisaged more difficulties would be encounterd with the reflection method. His idea further reinforced Dussik's notion that the transmission method was the better method.

Dussik's work and images had prompted M. I. T. neurosurgeon H Thomas Ballantine Jr., physicist/ engineer Richard Bolt, director of the newly established Acoustics Laboratory, and engineer Theodor Hueter (from Siemens, Germany) to investigate into similar techniques. They had learned of Dussik's work from the United States Army Command Headquarters in Europe. Bolt, Ballantyne and Hueter obtained financial support from the Public Health Service and set up a project to evaluate the value of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in neurology. The title of their project was called: "The Detection of Intracranial Pathology by Ultrasound"

Their initial experiments produced results similar to that of Dussik's, and their conclusions were published in their papers in 1950 and 1951 in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, and Science. In 1952 however, W Güttner and others at the Siemens Laboratories in Erlangen, Germany published data which demonstrated that Dussik's images were the result of imaging artifacts and it was quite impossible to image the ventricles and intracranial tumors satisfactorily by such a through-transmission technique on account of the great absorption and reflection of ultrasonic waves by the skull bone. In further experiments the team at M. I. T. put a skull in a water bath and showed that the ultrasonic patterns they had been obtaining from the heads of selected subjects could also be obtained from an empty skull. It soon became apparent that the reflections within the skull and attenuation patterns produced by the skull were contributing to the attenuation pattern which Dussik had originally thought represented changes in acoustic transmissions through the cerebral ventricles. The many images that Dussik obtained were not truely representing actual structures of the cerebral ventricles.

The M. I. T. research project was subsequently terminated in 1954. They wrote in their paper: "It is concluded that though compensated ultrasonograms (sound shadow pictures) may contain some information on brain structure, they are too sharply "noised" and are of unqualified clinical value". The findings had prompted the United States Atomic Energy Commission to conclude that ultrasound will not be useful in the diagnosis of brain pathologies. Medical research in this area was somewhat curtailed for the several years that followed, and enthusiasm was dampened at the Siemens laboratories in Germany to carry out further developments in imaging with ultrasound. At M .I. T. nevertheless, in the course of these pursuits, much basic data essential for tissue characterization and dosimetry were assembled and proved useful for later diagnostic work on other body regions.

Due to its ineffectiveness, the transmission technique in ultrasound diagnosis was almost completely abandoned after the mid-1950s from medical ultrasound research worldwide, being replaced by the reflection technique which was deployed in nearly all of the pioneering centers in the United States, Europe, and Japan. There was much debate, at least on theoretical considerations, on whether the transmission or the reflection method should produce the intended results, right from the late 1930s to the early 1950s, until a conclusion to use the reflection method was quite settled. Investigations using the reflection technique and pulse-echo ultrasound had taken off in the United States in the late 1940s. One of the earliest pioneers there was George Ludwig, a physician at the Naval Research Institute in Bethseda, Maryland who had begun experiments on animal tissues in 1949. A number of other investigators (John Wild, Douglass Howry) also made a start at around the same time, and confirmed the technique's usefullness. Karl Dussik, despite his lack of success in making useful and valid images from his transmission techniques, must be credited for being the first medical person to have applied ultrasound as a diagnostic tool, and in particular, in a planned and organised fashion. The concept did require a certain amount of innovation and inventiveness at that point in time. Douglas Gordon, a British ultrasound pioneer, in his book "Ultrasound as a diagnostic and surgical tool" published in 1964, had expressly called Dussik the "Father of Ultrasonic Diagnosis".

As described above, at the end of the war (1945) Dussik had continued to work at the military hospital (the former Hotel Haus Bauer), then taken over by the United States Armed Forces and renamed "Hospital 905 B". Upon departure of Professor Hans Meyer, Dussik was in charge of the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry. The hospital was re-organized into the "State Hospital for Neurology at Bad Ischl".

The property was subsequently leased out by the State and became in 1949 the Salzkammergut Private Hospital, where Dussik was the majority lease holder. There he also treated patients with ultrasound used in therapy and fabricated and sold ultrasound therapy devices. These were a source of revenue for them, and the brothers tried to continue on with their diagnostic experiments. However, with no financial funding and technical assistance, a sluggish income from the premises and problems arising from the lease, they had continued in great difficulty (Eckel, 1992).

In the same year (1949) Dussik published the neurology treatise "Zentralnervensystem und Sauerstoffmangel-Belastung" (The Central nervous system and hypoxic changess), discussing neurological and psychiatric effects secondary to hypoglycemia and hypoxia. Part of the content described experience derived from his work at the military hospital.

Apparently taking on the more viable option opened to him at the time, Dussik emigrated to the United States in October 1951^. He was accompanied by his wife Alexandrine and their two children. After a short obligatory stay at the Alamac Hotel in New York, the Dussiks settled in Brookline, Massachusetts, near Boston, where Dussik took up appointment at the Boston Multiple Sclerosis Clinic of the Boston State Hospital and the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Boston Dispensary (now the Tufts - New England Medical Center). Shortly after his arrival in 1951, he gave a lecture at the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, describing his early experiments in ultrasonic diagnosis and the difficulties he encountered.

In September 1952, Dussik returned to Bad Ischl to attend the International Medical Ultrasonic Congress hosted by his psychiatrist colleague Kurt Eckel. Eckel was first acquainted with Dussik at the millitary hospital in 1942, being a commander in the German Navy. Dussik presented his experience of 300 cases of brain pathologies in a paper "Weitere Ergebnisse der Ultraschalluntersuchung bei Gehirnerkrankungen" (Further results of the Ultrasonic Investigation of Brain illnesses). Nevertheless, he reported that between 1947 and 1951 no significant progress has been made and because of a lack of funds the brothers were unable to construct any new apparatus for the purpose. At the same meeting Dussik also delivered John Wild's paper "15 Megacycle Pulsed Ultrasonic Reflection Studies on Biological Tissues" on behalf of Wild who could not attend. Although suggested by Dussik, Wild declined collaboration between the two groups **. The proceedings of the meeting was published in 1953 in "Ultraschall in Medizin und Grenzgebieten, Band 6". Dussik returned to the United Staes after the meeting and The Salzkammergut Private Hospital in Bad Ischl was closed after his departure.

Working at the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Boston Dispensary, Dussik again became involved with ultrasound used as a therapeutic tool in physical medicine. There, with funding from the National Institute of Health, he conducted research on energy distribution of ultrasound used in the treatment of arthritis and multiple sclerosis and the use of ultrasound in making measurements of articular tissues. The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) held it's second annual conference in 1953 and Dussik presented a paper on the use of ultrasound in physical medicine and it's diagnostic use in neurology. In his presentation he said about ultrasonic diagnosis:

"However complicated the problems may be the importance of these possibilities seems so great as to justify any and all efforts to overcome the technical difficulties..... " ***.

Dussik was referring to the difficulties he had encountered with techniques in ultrasound transmission and recording. Although he had envisioned at that time that ultrasound could become an important diagnostic tool he was not optimistic. Nevertheless, "all efforts to overcome the technical difficulties" were undoubtedly forthcoming.

In the following year (1954), Dussik became a member of the executive committee of the AIUM. At it's annual conference he presented a paper on the use of ultrasound in arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The M. I. T. hosted a historical conference in Bioacoustics in 1956. It was attended by Dussik and many of the early pioneers in ultrasonic diagnosis including Toshio Wagai and Yoshimitsu Kikuchi from Japan and Peter Lindstrom, H Thomas Ballantine Jr., Richard Bolt, Theodor Hueter, John Wild, William Fry, Douglass Howry and others from the United States. Some of the pioneers had met each other for the first time and important views concerning methods and instrumentations were exchanged at the meeting. By then, methodology in ultrasonic diagnosis had almost completely shifted to the reflection technique. Dussik, after moving to the United States had not pursued further his experiments in transmission diagnosis. He mentioned in a talk in 1954, ".... the necessary facilities to continue the studies have not been at my disposal in this country..... " (Eckel, 1992). At the '56 meeting he had also expressed pessimism on the future of diagnostic ultrasound ^^^.

In 1958 he published his last paper on ultrasonic diagnosis: "Measurement of articular tissue with ultrasound" in the American Journal of Physical Medicine. This work, which was not related directly to ultrasound imaging techniques, investigated the attenuation of ultrasound during propagation through articular cartilage.

It was the first report on the use of ultrasound in the assessment of cartilaginous tissue. Dussik and his colleague reported on the speed and attenuation of sound in bovine and human cartilage at frequencies of 1 to 5 MHz. They determined that the velocity of sound in cartilages was 1665 m/sec, and in tendons 1750 m/sec. They also measured the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient, which was dependent on the frequency employed, using an insertion-loss technique. These data served as the accepted acoustic parameters for cartilage until as recently as 1990. In the same paper he described the ultrasonic artifact 'acoustic fibre anisotropy', which referred to the angle dependent appearance of tissue structures during ultrasonic insonation: If the angle between the emitted sound waves and the tendon is not perpendicular, the majority of the reflected waves may not be received by the transducer and tendons would be seen as hypoechoic.

In the late 1950s Dussik continued to work as clinical instructor in Psychiatry at the Tuft's University Medical School and as Senior psychiatrist at the Metropolitan State Hospital (M. S. H.), Waltham and the Massachusetts Mental Health Center. He was the Director of the Insulin Treatment Teaching and Research (ITTR) Division at the M. S. H. with research funding from the Manfred Sakel Foundation. In the 1960s, when the use of the method in the United States was much in decline, Dussik was still regarded as an important on-going contributor to the study of Insulin therapy in psychiatric illnesses, where he devised new protocols for administering the treatment. In 1963, he gave a demonstration of modern techniques of Insulin treatment at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association at the Creedmoor State Hospital, New York.

Dussiik was also on appointment as clinical associate of the Neurochemical Research Laboratory, Harvard Medical School where he collaborated research in areas of neuropathology, neuro-biochemistry and management of psychosis and schizophrenia. This included work with reknowned Harvard neurochemist Samuel Bogoch on the significance of various brain glyco-proteins and glyco-lipids in schizophrenia and on the use of newer agents such as Thiothixene (Navane) in its treatment. In the mid-1960s he collaborated with the David Hawkins' "Orthomolecular Psychiatry" group at Brunswick Hospital Center, Amityville, New York with trials on nicotinic acid and other food substances in the treatment of schizophrenia.

Dussik moved on to become Assistant to the Commissioner of Mental Health of the Commonweath of Massachusetts, an important position which he still held at the time of his death. In 1967, he finished his last paper in psychiatry, "Schizophrenia as a disorder of neuro-psychological control mechanisms".

Karl Dussik passed away at home in Lexington, Massachusetts on 19th March, 1968 from an acute myocardial infarct. He was survived by his wife Alexandrine and 3 children.


^ In 1938 Germany annexed Austria to the Greater German state, the Third Reich, as the Ostmark. Prior to this, economic instability had already led the country into German National Socialist-style politics. German troops had met with little opposition when they invaded in 1938 and a national referendum in Austria that year supported the annexation. The annexation nonetheless had devastating and irreparable consequences for the Universities and for Austrian scholarship. All Jewish children were expelled from public schools and National Socialists took control of Jewish-owned businesses. Many Austrians emigrated or fled the country. Some sixty five percent of all the professors and senior teachers at the University of Vienna were brutally dismissed for political and 'racial' reasons. Many of them finished up in concentration camps. It was estimated around two thirds of the Viennese medical profession left the country. Those that stayed behind were allocated to positions at the State's disposal and had to work in line with the Party's new policies. Psychiatrists/ neurologists were a particularly sensitive group at the time of Nazi rule. During the later part of the war many Austrian academic institutions could not escape wartime annihilations such as in September 1944 when the University of Vienna was heavily bombed and damaged.

After the war came to an end in 1945, the state was reconstituted, and for the next 10 years, Austria was divided up into 4 occupation zones (the American, British, French and Russian) with its own running and rules, and forbidden to join Germany again. Bad Ischl was in the American occupation zone. Vienna itself was splitted up into 4 zones. Normal scholarly activity very slowly resumed after 1945 although there was a great shortage of funds and personnel. Many scientists from Germany and Austria emigrated to the United States in the following 10 to 15 years, some through special projects, operations and arrangements with the United States government, which at that time had tried to absorb many of the "useful" scientific community from the two countries. In 1951, Dussik emigrated to the United States under the program Operation Paperclip.

* from "Ultraschall" by Lieselott Herforth and Herbert Winter. B.G. Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, 1958.

^^ from "Seeing with sound: A study of the development of medical images", by Edward Yoxen, in "The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology". The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Bijker W., Hughes T., Pinch T., (ed).1987: 281-303

** John Wild, personal communications.

*** from "A History of AIUM", AIUM publications, Joseph Holmes and Horace Thompson eds. 1984. Page 2.

^^^ from the book "The Dawn of Diagnostic Ultrasound" by Toshio Wagai, 1987, p. 152.

Read also a Forum article in: Stellungnahmen zum Buch "History of Psychiatry" von E. Shorter, in the Schweizerar Archive Fur Neurologie und Psychiatrie, P. 123, 151:3, 2000.

And: Leserbrief: Max Muller uber Manfred Sakel und andere judische Emigranten aus Nazi-Deutschland, in the Schweizerar Archive Fur Neurologie und Psychiatrie, P. 128, 152:3, 2001.

See also: Schutz, Wolfgang "The Medical Faculty of the University of Vienna 60 Years Following Austria's Annexation" Perspectives in Biology and Medicine - Volume 43:3, 2000, pp. 389-396. The Johns Hopkins University Press. [Excerpt]

And: "A Leading Medical School Seriously Damaged: Vienna 1938" by Edzard Ernst. In the Annuals of Medicine, Volume 122 Issue 10, Pages 789-792, 1995.

And: "The Fifty-Year Wound: How America's Cold War Victory Has Shaped Our World" by Derek Leebaert, Back Bay Books, 2001, p. 53, and archives of the Interagency Working Group of the U.S. National Archive and Record Administration.

Also referenced from "Die Entdeckung des ersten bildgebenden Verfahrens der Ultraschalldiagnostik durch K.-Th. Dussik vor 50 Jahren - Ein historischer Ruckblick 1942 - 1992" by Professor Kurt Eckel at the University of Salzburg. From the publication of the Bad Ischl Heritage Club in 2000. "Mitteilungen" - Des Ischler Heimatvereines - 50 Jahre Ischler Heimatverein. Quoted with permission. The article has earlier been published in "Ultraschall in Klinik und Praxis" Band 7 Heft 4, S. 299-304, 1992.

The relevant references from Dussik and others are listed below :

Dussik, K.T. (1942) Uber die moglichkeit hochfrequente mechanische schwingungen als diagnostisches hilfsmittel zu verwerten. Z Neurol Psychiat 174:153.
Dussik, K.T. (1942) On the possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid. Neurol. Psychiat. 174:153-168.
Dussik, K.T., Dussik, F. and Wyt, L. (1947) Auf dem Wege Zur Hyperphonographie des Gehirnes. Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 97:425-429
Dussik, K.T. (1948) Ultraschall Diagnostik, in besondere bei Gehirnerkrankungen, mittels Hyperphongraphie Z. Phys. Med. 1:140-145.
Dussik KT (1947) Verfahren zur Untersuchung von Korpern mittels Ultraschall Osterreichisches Patent Nr. A5720-47
Dussik KT (1948) Ultraschalldiagnostik, insbesondere bei Gehirnerkrankungen, mittels Hyperphonographie. Z PhysTher 1:9-10
Dussik, K.T. (1949) Zum heutigen stand der medizinischen ultraschallforschung. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 61:246-248.
Dussik, K.T. Weitere Ergebnisse der Ultrachalluntersuchung bei Gehirnerkrankungen. (1952) Acta. Neurochir. (Wien) 2:379-396.
Dussik, K. Entwickling und aussichten der ultraschall diagnostik mittels durchschallung. (1953) Ultraschall in Med. 6:203-204.
Dussik KT, Fritsch DJ (1954) Energy distribution measurements as a basis for the use of ultrasonics in arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Scientific Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Ultrasonic Therapie, Am Inst of Ultrasound Med. Washington D.C. 9th Sept. 1954, pp 43-55.
Dussik KT, Fritsch DJ (1956) Progress Reports of Projekt A454, Department of Physical Medicine. The Boston Dispencery NIH, April 1955, Jan 1956, Sept 1956.
Dussik K.T., Fritch D.J., Kyriazidou M., Sears R.S. (1958): Measurements of articular tissues with ultrasound. Am J Phys Med. 37(3):160-5.
Eckel K (1953) Bericht uber die Internationale Medizinische Ultraschalltagung Bad Ischl 7.-10. 9. 1952. Ultraschall in Medizin und Grenzgebieten 6: 101- 204.

Ballantine, H.T. Jr., Ludwig, G.D., Bolt, R.H. and Hueter, T.F. Ultrasonic localization of the cerebral ventricles. (1950) Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc. 38-41.
Ballantine, H.T. Jr., Bolt, R.H., Hueter, T.F. and Ludwig, G.D. On the detection of intracranial pathology by ultrasound. (1950) Science 112.525-528.
T. F. Hueter, R. H. Bolt, and H. T. Ballantine, Jr. On the Detection of Brain Tumors by Ultrasonics. J. Acoust Soc Am. 22, 686-687.
Hueter, T.F. Ballantine, H. T., Bolt, R.H. and Tatge, B. Systematic study of basic phenomena in Ultrasonic transmission through brain samples. (1950) M.I.T. Quart. Prog. Rept. Jan. -Mar.
Hueter, T.F. and Bolt, R.H. An ultrasonic method for outlining the cerebral ventricles. (1951) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 23:160-167.
Guttner, W., Fielder, G. and Patzold, J. (1952) Uber Ultraschallabbildungen Am Menschlichen Schadel. Acustica 2:148-156.
Bolt, H. and Hueter, T.F. Some aspects of transcranial ultrasonic transmission. (1953) Ultraschall in Med. 6:202-203.
Ballantine, H.T. Jr., Hueter, T.F. and Bolt, R.H. (1954) On the use of ultrasound for tumour detection. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 26:581-582

Some of Dussik's other representative papers in psychiatry:

Sakel M, Dussik KT. Ergebnisse der Hypoglykamie schock behandlung de Schizophrenie. (1936) Z Neurol Psychiatr 155:351ˇV415.
Dussik K. The insulin shock treatment of schizophrenia. (1937) Jahreek. I. Arztl. FortbUld., 28: 22.
Beiglbock W, Th. Dussik. The physiology of the hypoglycemic shock in the treatment of Schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 94: 50 - 59, 1938.
Dussik K.T. Three and a half years of the hypoglycemic therapy of Schizophrenia. (1938): Results and Problems. Amer J Psychiatry. 94: 269-276.
Dussik, K T. Uber Veranderungen des Zuckergehaltes des Liquor Cerebrospinalis Wahrend der Insulinshockbehandlung der Schizophrenie. Journal of Molecular Medicine (Historical Archive), 1938, 769-773.
Dussik KT, Urban H (1945) Zur Nachbehandlung der zentralen und peripheren Nervenverletzungen des Krieges. Forschungen und Forscher der Tiroler Arzteschule 47: 3-2 1.
Dussik KT, Urban H (1947) Hirnverletzte, ihre medizinische und soziale Versorgung. Med Rundsch 5.
Dussik KT, Berek K (1949) Moglichst totale Liquortransfusion in der Behandlung akut entzundlicher Erkrankungen des zentralen Nervensystems. In: Urban HJ (Hrsg) Potzl-Festschrift. Wagner, Innsbruck, S 163- 180.
Dussik KT, Eckel K (1949) Zentralnervensystem und Sauerstoffmangelbelastung. Maudrich, Wien.
Dussik KT (1949) Zum heutigen Stand der medizinischen Ultraschallforschung. Wr Klin Wochenschr 61: 246-248.
Dussik KT (1950) Bericht uber die Entwicklung der US-Therapie in Osterreich. Wiss. Verein. Ultraschall 28.4. 1950. Z Phys Ther 3: 145-147.
Dussik KT (1952) Weitere Ergebnisse der Ultraschalluntersuchung bei Gehirnerkrankungen. Acta Neurochir II: 379-401.
Bogoch S, Dussik KT, Lever PG. Clinical status and cerebrospinal fluid "total neuraminic acid". Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1959, 1:441-9.
Zetzel L, Kaplan H, Dussik KT. Liver Function Tests in Patients receiving Iproniazid. Am J Digest Dis. 4:1027-1033, 1959.
Shapiro AK, Dussik KT, Tolentino JC, Asekoff M. A "browsing" double blind study of iproniazid in geriatric patients. Dis Nerv Syst. 1960; 21:286-7.
Sherman S, Dussik KT, Lever PG. Oculogyric crisis induced by phenothiazine drugs. Dis Nerv Syst. 1960, 21:333-4.
Dussik KT. The awakening from psychosis. J Neuropsychiatr. 1960, 2:41-8.
Bogoch S, Dussik KT, Fender C, Conran P. Longitudianl clinical and neurochemical studies on Schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 1960, 117: 409-420
Dussik KT, Gidon DB, Watson BS, White JJ. Increased control of insulin coma by prior administration of Glucagon: A preliminary communication. Am J Psychiatry 1961, 118:66-69.
Bogoch S, Belval PC, Dussik KT, Conran PC. Psychological and biochemical syntheses occurring during recovery from psychosis. Am J Psychiatry. 1962, 119:128-35.
Dussik KT, Grunberg E, Soto-Dente M.The Ways out of Psychosis. J Neuropsychiatr. 1964, 5:525-33.
Dussik KT. Preliminary experience with insulin coma, nicotinic acid and other chemotherapy. Brunswick Hospital Center Conference on the concepts and treatment of Schizophrenia, January 21 to 22, 1967. J. Psycho-pharmacology. v.1, 1966.
Dussik KT. Schizophrenia as a disorder of neuro-psychological control mechanisms. Dis Nerv Syst. 1968, 29(5):Suppl:68-77.

Article by Dr. Joseph Woo, revised December, 2006.

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